tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-64339311315720600952018-12-12T12:54:41.840-08:00JointQuestThe quest goes on after Book 1 : "Book of Pure Logic". . . !JointQuest comnoreply@blogger.comBlogger4125tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6433931131572060095.post-12333576473461516152018-12-12T12:41:00.002-08:002018-12-12T12:47:29.047-08:00A mile stone of Wold Population determined to be at least 7.5 Billion!<br /><br /><img src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Crowded_BTS_skytrain_Bangkok.jpg/300px-Crowded_BTS_skytrain_Bangkok.jpg" /><br /><br /><span style="background-color: #f8f9fa; color: #222222; font-family: sans-serif; font-size: 12.3704px;">Crowded people on </span><a class="mw-redirect" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siam_BTS_Station" style="background: none rgb(248, 249, 250); color: #0b0080; font-family: sans-serif; font-size: 12.3704px; text-decoration-line: none;" title="Siam BTS Station">Siam BTS Station</a><span style="background-color: #f8f9fa; color: #222222; font-family: sans-serif; font-size: 12.3704px;"> on the rush hour in </span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangkok" style="background: none rgb(248, 249, 250); color: #0b0080; font-family: sans-serif; font-size: 12.3704px; text-decoration-line: none;" title="Bangkok">Bangkok</a><span style="background-color: #f8f9fa; color: #222222; font-family: sans-serif; font-size: 12.3704px;">, </span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thailand" style="background: none rgb(248, 249, 250); color: #0b0080; font-family: sans-serif; font-size: 12.3704px; text-decoration-line: none;" title="Thailand">Thailand</a><br /><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_overpopulation">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_overpopulation</a><br /><br /><h3>A mile stone of Wold Population determined to be at least 7.5 Billion!</h3><div><br /></div><div><div>U.S. Population</div><div>Population: 329,160,616</div><div>One birth every 8 seconds</div><div>One death every 11 seconds</div><div>One international migrant (net) every 29 seconds</div><div>Net gain of one person every 15 seconds</div><div>Date: 12/11/2018</div><div><br /></div><div>World Population</div><div>Population:7,538,945,556</div><div><br /></div><div>Top 10 Most Populous Countries (July 1, 2018</div><div>Rank, Country, Population</div><div><br /></div><div>1,China,1384688986</div><div>2,India,1296834042</div><div>3,United States,329256465</div><div>4,Indonesia,262787403</div><div>5,Brazil,208846892</div><div>6,Pakistan,207862518</div><div>7,Nigeria,203452505</div><div>8,Bangladesh,159453001</div><div>9,Russia,142122776</div><div>10,Japan,126168156</div></div><div><br /></div><div>Source gov.usa</div><div><br /></div>JointQuest comhttps://plus.google.com/118230415976116802531noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6433931131572060095.post-12299766700981191472018-09-17T12:03:00.002-07:002018-09-17T12:13:36.350-07:00FURTHER LOGIC AS TO RULES OF THINKING CORRECTLY, MAKING CORRECT ANALYSIS, THAT DIFFER THOUGH ARE BASIS FOR CLASSICAL LOGIC, OR ARE USED TO AMPLIFY CLASSICAL LOGIC'S LIMITATIONS.<br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: left;"><a href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-E2m_xrGKpsQ/W5_8zC0pmDI/AAAAAAAAAJ8/ADOnVcb_xbMaKGroJUl_vhfYK44BhQpuwCLcBGAs/s1600/Picture.png" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" data-original-height="103" data-original-width="727" height="45" src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-E2m_xrGKpsQ/W5_8zC0pmDI/AAAAAAAAAJ8/ADOnVcb_xbMaKGroJUl_vhfYK44BhQpuwCLcBGAs/s320/Picture.png" width="320" /></a></div><br /><br /><br /><h3>FURTHER LOGIC AS TO RULES OF THINKING CORRECTLY,<br />MAKING CORRECT ANALYSIS, THAT DIFFER THOUGH<br />ARE BASIS FOR CLASSICAL LOGIC, OR ARE USED<br />TO AMPLIFY CLASSICAL LOGIC'S LIMITATIONS.</h3><br /><span style="font-family: "courier new" , "courier" , monospace;">These references further demonstrate that the Logic I used in the Book of Pure Logic, is proven through Mathematics, and more advanced logic in <u>intuitionism and constructive proof</u>. Expanding the correct methods of deduction and inference.</span><br /><br />https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intuitionistic_logic<br />https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-intuitionistic/<br /><br /><br /><h3>Intuitionistic logic</h3><br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />Jump to navigation Jump to search<br /><br /><u>Intuitionistic logic</u>, sometimes more generally called <u>constructive logic</u>, refers to systems of symbolic logic that differ from the systems used for classical logic by more closely mirroring the notion of <u>constructive proof</u>. In particular, systems of intuitionistic logic do not include the law of the excluded middle and double negation elimination, which are fundamental inference rules in <u>classical logic</u>.<br /><br />Formalized intuitionistic logic was originally developed by Arend Heyting to provide a formal basis for Brouwer's programme of intuitionism. From a proof-theoretic perspective, Heyting’s calculus is a restriction of classical logic in which the law of excluded middle and double negation elimination have been removed. Excluded middle and double negation elimination can still be proved for some propositions on a case by case basis, however, but do not hold universally as they do with classical logic.<br /><br />Several systems of semantics for intuitionistic logic have been studied. One of these semantics mirrors classical Boolean-valued semantics but uses Heyting algebras in place of Boolean algebras. Another semantics uses Kripke models. These, however, are technical means for studying Heyting’s deductive system rather than formalizations of Brouwer’s original informal semantic intuitions. Semantical systems claim to capture such intuitions, due to offering meaningful concepts of “constructive truth” (rather than merely validity or provability), are Gödel’s dialectica interpretation, Kleene’s realizability, Medvedev’s logic of finite problems,[1] or Japaridze’s computability logic. Yet such semantics persistently induce logics properly stronger than Heyting’s logic. Some authors have argued that this might be an indication of inadequacy of Heyting’s calculus itself, deeming the latter incomplete as a constructive logic.[2]<br /><br />The syntax of formulas of intuitionistic logic is similar to propositional logic or first-order logic. However, intuitionistic connectives are not definable in terms of each other in the same way as in classical logic, hence their choice matters. In intuitionistic propositional logic (IPL) it is customary to use →, ∧, ∨, ⊥ as the basic connectives, treating ¬A as an abbreviation for (A → ⊥). In intuitionistic first-order logic both quantifiers ∃, ∀ are needed.<br /><br />Weaker than Classical Logic[edit]<br />Intuitionistic logic is weaker than classical logic. Each theorem of intuitionistic logic is a theorem in classical logic. Many tautologies in classical logic are not theorems in intuitionistic logic. Examples include the law of excluded middle p ∨ ¬p, Peirce's law ((p → q) → p) → p, and double negation elimination ¬¬p → p. But double negation introduction p → ¬¬ p is a theorem.<br /><br />Rejecting excluded middle may seem strange to those more familiar with classical logic. To prove it in intuitionistic logic, it is necessary to prove the truth or falsity of all possible propositional formulae, which is impossible for a variety of reasons.<br /><br />Non-interdefinability of operators[edit]<br />In classical propositional logic, it is possible to take one of conjunction, disjunction, or implication as primitive, and define the other two in terms of it together with negation, such as in Łukasiewicz's three axioms of propositional logic. It is even possible to define all four in terms of a sole sufficient operator such as the Peirce arrow (NOR) or Sheffer stroke (NAND). Similarly, in classical first-order logic, one of the quantifiers can be defined in terms of the other and negation.<br /><br />These are fundamentally consequences of the law of bivalence, which makes all such connectives merely Boolean functions. The law of bivalence does not hold in intuitionistic logic, only the law of non-contradiction. As a result, none of the basic connectives can be dispensed with, and the above axioms are all necessary. Most of the classical identities are only theorems of intuitionistic logic in one direction, although some are theorems in both directions.<br /><br />Relation to other logics[edit]<br />Intuitionistic logic is related by duality to a paraconsistent logic known as Brazilian, anti-intuitionistic or dual-intuitionistic logic.[12]<br /><br />The subsystem of intuitionistic logic with the FALSE axiom removed is known as minimal logic.<br /><br />Relation to many-valued logic[edit]<br />Kurt Gödel's work involving many-valued logic showed in 1932 that intuitionistic logic is not a finite-valued logic.[13] (See the section titled Heyting algebra semantics above for an infinite-valued logic interpretation of intuitionistic logic.)<br /><br />Relation to intermediate logics[edit]<br />Any finite Heyting algebra which is not equivalent to a Boolean algebra defines (semantically) an intermediate logic. On the other hand, validity of formulae in pure intuitionistic logic is not tied to any individual Heyting algebra but relates to any and all Heyting algebras at the same time.<br /><br />Relation to modal logic[edit]<br />Any formula of the intuitionistic propositional logic may be translated into the normal modal logic S4 as follows...<br /><br /><br />================================================<br /><br /><br /><br />https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructive_proof<br /><br /><h3>Constructive proof</h3><br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />Jump to navigationJump to search<br /><br />In mathematics, a constructive proof is a method of proof that demonstrates the existence of a mathematical object by creating or providing a method for creating the object. This is in contrast to a non-constructive proof (also known as an existence proof or pure existence theorem) which proves the existence of a particular kind of object without providing an example. For avoiding confusion with the stronger concept that follows, such a constrictive proof is sometimes called an effective proof.<br /><br />A constructive proof may also refer to the stronger concept of a proof that is valid in Constructive mathematics. Constructivism is a mathematical philosophy that rejects all proof methods that involve the existence of objects that are not explicitly built. This excludes, in particular, the use of the law of the excluded middle, the axiom of infinity, and the axiom of choice, and induces a different meaning for some terminology (for example, the term "or" has a stronger meaning in constructive mathematics than in classical).<br /><br />Some non-constructive proofs show that if a certain proposition is false, a contradiction ensues; consequently the proposition must be true (proof by contradiction). However, the principle of explosion (ex falso quodlibet) has been accepted in some varieties of constructive mathematics, including intuitionism.<br /><br />Constructive proofs can be seen as defining certified mathematical algorithms: this idea is explored in the Brouwer–Heyting–Kolmogorov interpretation of constructive logic, the Curry–Howard correspondence between proofs and programs, and such logical systems as Per Martin-Löf's Intuitionistic Type Theory, and Thierry Coquand and Gérard Huet's Calculus of Constructions.<br /><br /><br />Contents<br />1<span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>An historical example<br />2<span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>Examples<br />2.1<span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>Non-constructive proofs<br />2.2<span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>Constructive proofs<br />3<span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>Brouwerian counterexamples<br />4<span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>See also<br />5<span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>References<br />6<span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>Further reading<br />7<span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>External links<br />An historical example<br />Until the end of 19th century, all mathematical proofs were essentially constructive. The first non-constructive constructions appeared with Georg Cantor theory of infinite set, and the formal definition of real numbers.<br /><br />The first use of non-constructive proof for solving previously considered seems to be Hilbert's Nullstellensatz and Hilbert's basis theorem. From a philosophical point of view, the former is specially interesting, as implying the existence of a well specified object.<br /><br />Nullstellensatz may be stated as follows: If {\displaystyle f_{1},\ldots ,f_{k}} f_{1},\ldots ,f_{k} are polynomials in n indeterminates with complex coefficients, which have no common complex zeros, then there are polynomial {\displaystyle g_{1},\ldots ,g_{k}} {\displaystyle g_{1},\ldots ,g_{k}} such that<br /><br />{\displaystyle f_{1}g_{1}+\ldots +f_{k}g_{k}.} {\displaystyle f_{1}g_{1}+\ldots +f_{k}g_{k}.}<br />Such a non-constructive existence theorem was such a surprise for mathematicians of that time that one of them, Paul Gordan wrote: "this is not mathematics, it is theology".<br /><br />Twenty five years later, Grete Hermann provided an algorithm for computing {\displaystyle g_{1},\ldots ,g_{k},} {\displaystyle g_{1},\ldots ,g_{k},} which is not a constructive proof in the strong sense, as she used Hilbert's result. She proved that, if {\displaystyle g_{1},\ldots ,g_{k}} {\displaystyle g_{1},\ldots ,g_{k}} exist, they can be found with degrees less than<br /><br />{\displaystyle 2^{2^{n}}.} {\displaystyle 2^{2^{n}}.}<br />This provides an algorithm, as the problem is reduced to solving a system of linear equations, by considering as unknowns the finite number of coefficients of the {\displaystyle g_{i}.} g_{i}.<br /><br />Examples<br />Non-constructive proofs<br />First consider the theorem that there are an infinitude of prime numbers. Euclid's proof is constructive. But a common way of simplifying Euclid's proof postulates that, contrary to the assertion in the theorem, there are only a finite number of them, in which case there is a largest one, denoted n. Then consider the number n! + 1 (1 + the product of the first n numbers). Either this number is prime, or all of its prime factors are greater than n. Without establishing a specific prime number, this proves that one exists that is greater than n, contrary to the original postulate.<br /><br />Now consider the theorem "There exist irrational numbers {\displaystyle a} a and {\displaystyle b} b such that {\displaystyle a^{b}} a^{b} is rational." This theorem can be proven using a constructive proof, or using a non-constructive proof.<br /><br />The following 1953 proof by Dov Jarden has been widely used as an example of a non-constructive proof since at least 1970:[1][2]<br /><br />CURIOSA<br />339. A Simple Proof That a Power of an Irrational Number to an Irrational Exponent May Be Rational.<br />{\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}^{\sqrt {2}}} {\sqrt {2}}^{\sqrt {2}} is either rational or irrational. If it is rational, our statement is proved. If it is irrational, {\displaystyle ({\sqrt {2}}^{\sqrt {2}})^{\sqrt {2}}=2} (\sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}})^{\sqrt{2}} = 2 proves our statement.<br /> Dov Jarden Jerusalem<br /><br />In a bit more detail:<br /><br />Recall that {\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}} {\sqrt {2}} is irrational, and 2 is rational. Consider the number {\displaystyle q={\sqrt {2}}^{\sqrt {2}}} q = \sqrt{2}^{\sqrt2}. Either it is rational or it is irrational.<br />If {\displaystyle q} q is rational, then the theorem is true, with {\displaystyle a} a and {\displaystyle b} b both being {\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}} {\sqrt {2}}.<br />If {\displaystyle q} q is irrational, then the theorem is true, with {\displaystyle a} a being {\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}^{\sqrt {2}}} \sqrt{2}^{\sqrt2} and {\displaystyle b} b being {\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}} {\sqrt {2}}, since<br />{\displaystyle \left({\sqrt {2}}^{\sqrt {2}}\right)^{\sqrt {2}}={\sqrt {2}}^{({\sqrt {2}}\cdot {\sqrt {2}})}={\sqrt {2}}^{2}=2.} \left (\sqrt{2}^{\sqrt2}\right )^{\sqrt2} = \sqrt{2}^{(\sqrt{2} \cdot \sqrt{2})} = \sqrt{2}^2 = 2.<br />This proof is non-constructive because it relies on the statement "Either q is rational or it is irrational"—an instance of the law of excluded middle, which is not valid within a constructive proof. The non-constructive proof does not construct an example a and b; it merely gives a number of possibilities (in this case, two mutually exclusive possibilities) and shows that one of them—but does not show which one—must yield the desired example.<br /><br />It turns out that {\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}^{\sqrt {2}}} \sqrt{2}^{\sqrt2} is irrational because of the Gelfond–Schneider theorem, but this fact is irrelevant to the correctness of the non-constructive proof.<br /><br />Constructive proofs<br />A constructive proof of the above theorem on irrational powers of irrationals would give an actual example, such as:<br /><br />{\displaystyle a={\sqrt {2}}\,,\quad b=\log _{2}9\,,\quad a^{b}=3\,.} a = \sqrt{2}\, , \quad b = \log_2 9\, , \quad a^b = 3\, .<br />The square root of 2 is irrational, and 3 is rational. {\displaystyle \log _{2}9} \log_2 9 is also irrational: if it were equal to {\displaystyle m \over n} m \over n, then, by the properties of logarithms, 9n would be equal to 2m, but the former is odd, and the latter is even.<br /><br />A more substantial example is the graph minor theorem. A consequence of this theorem is that a graph can be drawn on the torus if, and only if, none of its minors belong to a certain finite set of "forbidden minors". However, the proof of the existence of this finite set is not constructive, and the forbidden minors are not actually specified. They are still unknown.<br /><br />Brouwerian counterexamples<br />In constructive mathematics, a statement may be disproved by giving a counterexample, as in classical mathematics. However, it is also possible to give a Brouwerian counterexample to show that the statement is non-constructive. This sort of counterexample shows that the statement implies some principle that is known to be non-constructive. If it can be proved constructively that a statement implies some principle that is not constructively provable, then the statement itself cannot be constructively provable. For example, a particular statement may be shown to imply the law of the excluded middle. An example of a Brouwerian counterexample of this type is Diaconescu's theorem, which shows that the full axiom of choice is non-constructive in systems of constructive set theory, since the axiom of choice implies the law of excluded middle in such systems. The field of constructive reverse mathematics develops this idea further by classifying various principles in terms of "how nonconstructive" they are, by showing they are equivalent to various fragments of the law of the excluded middle.<br /><br />Brouwer also provided "weak" counterexamples.[3] Such counterexamples do not disprove a statement, however; they only show that, at present, no constructive proof of the statement is known. One weak counterexample begins by taking some unsolved problem of mathematics, such as Goldbach's conjecture, which asks whether every even natural number larger than 4 is the sum of two primes. Define a sequence a(n) of rational numbers as follows:[4]<br /><br />{\displaystyle a(n)={\begin{cases}(1/2)^{n}&{\mbox{if every even natural number in the interval }}[4,n]{\mbox{ is the sum of two primes}},\\(1/2)^{k}&{\mbox{if }}k{\mbox{ is the least even natural number in the interval }}[4,n]{\mbox{ which is not the sum of two primes}}\end{cases}}} {\displaystyle a(n)={\begin{cases}(1/2)^{n}&{\mbox{if every even natural number in the interval }}[4,n]{\mbox{ is the sum of two primes}},\\(1/2)^{k}&{\mbox{if }}k{\mbox{ is the least even natural number in the interval }}[4,n]{\mbox{ which is not the sum of two primes}}\end{cases}}}<br />For each n, the value of a(n) can be determined by exhaustive search, and so a is a well defined sequence, constructively. Moreover, because a is a Cauchy sequence with a fixed rate of convergence, a converges to some real number α, according to the usual treatment of real numbers in constructive mathematics.<br /><br />Several facts about the real number α can be proved constructively. However, based on the different meaning of the words in constructive mathematics, if there is a constructive proof that "α = 0 or α ≠ 0" then this would mean that there is a constructive proof of Goldbach's conjecture (in the former case) or a constructive proof that Goldbach's conjecture is false (in the latter case). Because no such proof is known, the quoted statement must also not have a known constructive proof. However, it is entirely possible that Goldbach's conjecture may have a constructive proof (as we do not know at present whether it does), in which case the quoted statement would have a constructive proof as well, albeit one that is unknown at present. The main practical use of weak counterexamples is to identify the "hardness" of a problem. For example, the counterexample just shown shows that the quoted statement is "at least as hard to prove" as Goldbach's conjecture. Weak counterexamples of this sort are often related to the limited principle of omniscience.<br /><br />See also<br />Errett Bishop - author of the book "Foundations of Constructive Analysis".<br />Existence theorem#'Pure' existence results<br />Non-constructive algorithm existence proofs<br />Probabilistic method<br /><br />References<br /> J. Roger Hindley, "The Root-2 Proof as an Example of Non-constructivity", unpublished paper, September 2014, full text Archived 2014-10-23 at the Wayback Machine.<br /> Dov Jarden, "A simple proof that a power of an irrational number to an irrational exponent may be rational", Curiosa No. 339 in Scripta Mathematica 19:229 (1953)<br /> A. S. Troelstra, Principles of Intuitionism, Lecture Notes in Mathematics 95, 1969, p. 102<br /> Mark van Atten, 2015, "Weak Counterexamples", Stanford Encyclopedia of Mathematics<br />Further reading<br />J. Franklin and A. Daoud (2011) Proof in Mathematics: An Introduction. Kew Books, ISBN 0-646-54509-4, ch. 4<br />Hardy, G.H. & Wright, E.M. (1979) An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers (Fifth Edition). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-853171-0<br />Anne Sjerp Troelstra and Dirk van Dalen (1988) "Constructivism in Mathematics: Volume 1" Elsevier Science. ISBN 978-0-444-70506-8<br />External links<br />Weak counterexamples by Mark van Atten, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy<br />Categories: Mathematical proofsConstructivism (mathematics)<br /><br />.<br />.<br />.<br /><br /><br />JointQuest comhttps://plus.google.com/118230415976116802531noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6433931131572060095.post-26344854415171639382018-07-24T11:39:00.001-07:002018-07-24T11:50:16.248-07:00Thought and Imagination - Can a machine equate humans in so many things of our brain and minds?<h3><br /></h3><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-hyTdz-5qP_c/W1d0lvdH3QI/AAAAAAAAAJU/xcbZmbO-nKAJUZC0nQQyTE6q-9OT4xL7gCLcBGAs/s1600/Screenshot%2B%25282%2529.png" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" data-original-height="768" data-original-width="1366" height="222" src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-hyTdz-5qP_c/W1d0lvdH3QI/AAAAAAAAAJU/xcbZmbO-nKAJUZC0nQQyTE6q-9OT4xL7gCLcBGAs/s400/Screenshot%2B%25282%2529.png" width="400" /></a></div><h3><br /></h3><h3><br /></h3><h3>Thought and Imagination - Can a machine equate humans in so many things of our brain and minds?</h3><div><div>THOUGHT AND IMAGINATION</div><div><br /></div><div>[1] Imagination</div><div><br /></div><div>From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div><div>Jump to navigationJump to search</div><div>For other uses, see Imagination (disambiguation).</div><div><br /></div><div>Olin Levi Warner, Imagination (1896). Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C.</div><div><br /></div><div>Imagination is the capacity to produce images, ideas and sensations in the mind without any immediate input of the senses (such as seeing or hearing). Imagination helps make knowledge applicable in solving problems and is fundamental to integrating experience and the learning process.[1][2][3][4] A basic training for imagination is listening to storytelling (narrative),[1][5] in which the exactness of the chosen words is the fundamental factor to "evoke worlds".[6]</div><div><br /></div><div>Imagination is a cognitive process used in mental functioning and sometimes used in conjunction with psychological imagery. The cognate term of mental imagery may be used in psychology for denoting the process of reviving in the mind recollections of objects formerly given in sense perception. Since this use of the term conflicts with that of ordinary language, some psychologists have preferred to describe this process as "imaging" or "imagery" or to speak of it as "reproductive" as opposed to "productive" or "constructive" imagination. Constructive imagination is further divided into voluntary top-down imagination driven by the prefrontal cortex, that is called mental synthesis, and spontaneous bottom up involuntary generation of novel images that occurs during dreaming. Imagined images, both novel and recalled, are seen with the "mind's eye".</div><div><br /></div><div>Imagination can also be expressed through stories such as fairy tales or fantasies. Children often use such narratives and pretend play in order to exercise their imaginations. When children develop fantasy they play at two levels: first, they use role playing to act out what they have developed with their imagination, and at the second level they play again with their make-believe situation by acting as if what they have developed is an actual reality.[7]</div><div><br /></div><div><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imagination">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imagination</a></div></div><div><br /></div><div><br /></div><div>[2] Thought</div><div><br /></div><div>From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div><div>Jump to navigationJump to search</div><div><br /></div><div>For other uses, see Thought (disambiguation).</div><div>"Think" redirects here. For other uses, see Think (disambiguation).</div><div><br /></div><div>Girl with a Book by José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior</div><div>Neuropsychology</div><div>Topics[show]</div><div>Brain functions[show]</div><div>People[show]</div><div>Tests[show]</div><div>Mind and brain portal</div><div><br /></div><div><br /></div><div>Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to a reality-oriented conclusion.”[1] Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.</div><div><br /></div><div>Because thought underlies many human actions and interactions, understanding its physical and metaphysical origins, processes, and effects has been a longstanding goal of many academic disciplines including linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, artificial intelligence, biology, sociology and cognitive science.</div><div><br /></div><div>Thinking allows humans to make sense of, interpret, represent or model the world they experience, and to make predictions about that world. It is therefore helpful to an organism with needs, objectives, and desires as it makes plans or otherwise attempts to accomplish those goals.</div><div><br /></div><div><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thought">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thought</a></div><div><br /></div><div><br /></div><div>Thought (disambiguation)</div><div><br /></div><div>From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div><div>Jump to navigationJump to search</div><div><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span></div><div>Look up thought in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.</div><div><br /></div><div>Thought is a mental process which allows beings to be conscious, make decisions, imagine and, in general, operate on symbols in a rational or irrational manner. It is an element/instance of thinking and is used as its synonym. Although more specifically, thought is technically the 'product' of thinking, it (thought) is usually derived through the action of thinking, representative of a cumulative result of the thinking process; although in many languages, thought and thinking are synonymous in everyday usage.</div><div><br /></div><div><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thought_(disambiguation)">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thought_(disambiguation)</a></div><div><br />http://www.ez-robots.com<br /><br /><br /></div><div><br /></div><div>Comments:</div><div><br /></div><div>Known today as the "morals" of tinkering with human life and laboratory experiments beyond certain boundaries. I would doubt you would want a machine to somewhat think what was programmed in it's circuits, and may have the ability to think new thoughts/ideas, from a database archive increasing in knowledge. And have big necessary decisions to make between "good" and "evil/bad"!</div><div><br /></div><div>But believe me it is as dangerous as it is, for us humans to have in our hands so much evil or to avoid it, as History clearly proves. Including the World Wars and Genocides, and ancient times. For a machine to be given these responsibilities or to even accidentally develop these capacities...!</div><div><br /></div><div>Now in Evolution, regardless of learned good behaviors, what will happen or is permitted to happen is what Evolution is...! Meaning that when all is said and done, there are no final "responsibilities"...!</div><div>As even the Planet can be destroyed sooner or later, and our Sun's energy supply cannot go on for ever even if it is calculated to last millions of years more.</div><div><br /></div><div><br /></div><div><br /></div><div><br /></div><div><br /></div><div><br /></div>JointQuest comhttps://plus.google.com/118230415976116802531noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6433931131572060095.post-76702079945998803802018-06-11T11:05:00.002-07:002018-12-12T12:14:25.082-08:00Can AI gain Consciousness by themselves?<div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Om9tRQzz9WE/XBFqhTkMcUI/AAAAAAAAAKc/XffgtfhhCeEjlvjduVFOjn66xvqSKlf4QCPcBGAYYCw/s1600/tumblr_AI.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="clear: left; float: left; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" data-original-height="284" data-original-width="336" height="270" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Om9tRQzz9WE/XBFqhTkMcUI/AAAAAAAAAKc/XffgtfhhCeEjlvjduVFOjn66xvqSKlf4QCPcBGAYYCw/s320/tumblr_AI.jpg" width="320" /></a></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><br /></div><h3 style="clear: both;">Can AI gain Consciousness by themselves?</h3><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><a href="http://tharindra-galahena.tumblr.com/post/93329368006/can-ai-gain-consciousness-by-themselves">http://tharindra-galahena.tumblr.com/post/93329368006/can-ai-gain-consciousness-by-themselves</a></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">Consciousness in AI is a topic which is argued by not only computer and cognitive scientists, but also philosophers. Philosophers like John Searle and Hubert Dreyfus have argued against the idea that a computer can gain consciousness. For an example, arguments like Chinese Room have been proposed against the idea of strong AI. But there are also philosophers like Daniel Dennett and Douglas Hofstadter, who have argued that the computers can gain consciousness.</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">Although there are debates about the how to create a conscious machine, for this article I choose to look at the creation of machine consciousness in another way. Do we have to design the AI’s architecture with the conscious from the beginning to make a conscious AI? Will the AI be able to gain consciousness of its own? Or will the consciousness be emerged form when the AI’s architecture when it gained sufficient enough complexity by evolution or by self modification without human interference?</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">Consciousness without Human Design</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">Although consciousness is an important quality, defining it clearly is a somewhat difficult task. But we can roughly define it with two main components, the Awareness (Phenomenal Awareness) and the Agency. Awareness is ability to the external world and also feel or sense the content of the own mind. And the Agency is the control over external world and also the control over our self or the mental states. Which means the control the both behavioral (control external organs, hands, feet, etc.) and mental aspects. We should also be aware of the control it to become conscious. We should know/feel that we have the control (or that we are doing it). The actions we are not aware like beating of the heart, breathing or things we do without thinking (for example, walking or driving without thinking or concentrating on it or thinking about something else) aren’t taken as conscious actions. So after including all of these, we can define the consciousness as (or at least I’m using this definition for this article) the awareness and control over external objects and also awareness of ones own mental content. Another way of putting it is having a sense of self-hood.</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">According to the above definition of consciousness, we can see that the concept self is also linked with the consciousness. So, what is self? The self can be defined as the representation of one’s identity or the subject of experience. In other words self is the part that receives the experiences or the part that has the awareness. The self is an integral part in human motivation, cognition, affect, and social identity.</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">Concept of self may not be a something that we are born with. According to the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, the part of the mind which creates the self is developed later in the psychological development of the child. In the beginning a child only has the Id. Id is a set of desires which cannot be controlled by the child and only seeks pleasure (Pleasure Principle). But later in the development process a part of the Id is transformed into the Ego. And this Ego creates the concept of self in the child. Now the question will be, Can AI be developed into a stage where it can also create something like Ego like the human mind? If the AI has a structure which contains the necessary similarities to a human mind or the AI has an artificial brain similar to the human brain and nervous system, then AI may be able to undergo a process which create some sort of an Ego similar to human Ego. And for humans this Ego is created because of the interactions which a child has with the external world. So like that, maybe the influences which AI faces can trigger the creation of the Ego in AI.</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">According to the theory of Jacques Lacan the process of creating the self of a child happens in the stage called the mirror stage. In this stage the child (in 6-18 months of age) sees an external image of his or her body (trough a mirror or represented to the child through the mother or primary caregiver) and identify it as a totality. Or in other words the child realized that he or she is not an extension of the world, but a separate entity from the rest of the world. And the concept of self is developed through this process. So, can an AI go through this kind of a process or a stage and develop a self? Regardless of whether the structure of the AI is similar to a human mind or not, the realization of the fact that it is a separate individual from the first time will be a new and revolutionary experience to AI (if the AI is sophisticated enough to process that kind of realization or experience in a proper way). So this kind of an experience may be able to make a change in the AI which may be able to give the AI an idea about self. But if this stage of AI is similar to the mirror stage, then the AI must also have a way of seeing its own reflection in order to undergo this kind of a process. If the AI has a body (robot, maybe) and doesn’t extend beyond that body then this won’t be a problem. But if the AI can be copied into new hardware or extend itself through a network or hardware, then defining its boundaries can be somewhat difficult. So seeing it as something that is not fragmented and has clear boundaries will a bit tricky. But if the architecture of the AI may allow a different way of defining boundaries and see it as an individual then this would work.</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">When we consider the other animals, we can see that an animal must have a certain complexity to have the self awareness (or consciousness). Methods like Red Spot Technique have shown that animals like some species of ape and dolphins have shown self awareness and some animals haven’t. So we can assume that AI must also have an architecture with sufficient enough complexity for it to develop a consciousness. So at some point in the process of evolution, the AI must be able to achieve the necessary complexity, in order for the AI to become conscious. But if the evolution of the AI is similar to the evolution process in Darwinian theory, then the AI which finally achieve the consciousness won’t be the ones that the process of evolution begins with because the new generation of AI is built by merging the best architectures of the old generation of AI and mutating them. So for this merging and mutating process the AI may need human assistance.</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">But a single AI also can undergo a sort of an evolutionary process of its own. And such process would be self improvement or more precisely recursive self improvement. Recursive self-improvement is the ability of an AI to program its own software or add parts to its structure or architecture (maybe hardware vise too). So this process also will be able to make the AI achieve necessary complexity in some point.</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">Like that, maybe the AI will be able to produce consciousness through self modification, or through a stage in their psychological development process by themselves without humans specifically designing it to be conscious from the beginning.</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">31 JUL 2014</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">==========================================</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">What do you think folks?</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">Well Philosophy does not oversimplify the issue of consciousness as Evolution does about life's Origins and Biology, etc.</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">They are still theorizing about human consciousness!</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">Please refer to Consciousness at Wikipedia, and the amount of themes and studies you might ignore about.</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">Tell you the truth I am still divided as to not all the parts making the puzzle, that is accounting for everything. There are still many unknowns they are speculating about and theorizing.</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">I could make a shot in the dark as to my solutions to Origins, and the difference between Artificial Intelligence and Human Consciousness!</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">But I lost some of my reference Amazon, PhD level Textbooks...</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">So this process of my work has been slowed down a bit.</div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both;">As to humans beliefs, and Religion as a source of good social activities, I have finished any comment or studies on the subject.</div><div>.</div><div>.</div><div>.</div><div><br /></div>JointQuest comhttps://plus.google.com/118230415976116802531noreply@blogger.com0